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جلب جبال جليدية إلى الخليج!!

 

د. عبدالله المسند*

 

 

الجبل الجليدي (Iceberg) عبارة عن كتلة ضخمة من الجليد العذب، انفصل عن كتل أضخم منه، ثم بدأ يطفو ويسبح في مياه المحيط، ويظهر منه نحو ثمنه والباقي تحت الماء. وغالباً ما تظهر في البحار المفتوحة المتاخمة للقارة المتجمدة الجنوبية (الأنتاركتيكا) والمحيط المتجمد الشمالي، وجزيرة جرينلاند، وتنفصل عادة في فصل الربيع والصيف، وتبلغ درجة حرارة مركز الجبل الجليدي بين 1520 درجة مئوية تحت الصفر.

 

 

والجبال الجليدية المنفصلة عن قارة الأنتاركتيكا يبلغ طول أضخمها نحو 320كم (أي يملأ المسافة البينية بين الرياض والقصيم)، وعرضه نحو 97كم!! وتقدر مساحته بنحو 13 ألف كم مربع، أي أكبر من البحرين بنحو 19 مرة!!، ومتوسط طول الجبال الجليدية الجنوبية نحو 16 كم، وبعضها يناهز ارتفاعه مبنى يتكون من 10 أدوار.

 

 

تذوب الجبال الجليدية ببطء شديد في محيطها، ولأن سبعة أثمان الجبل الجليدي غاطس في البحر؛ فإن أثر التيارات البحرية يكون أقوى من التيارات الهوائية في تحريك الجبل وتوجيهه. ويشكل الجبل الجليدي خطراً على الملاحة البحرية، والذاكرة الإنسانية لم ولن تنسى حادثة سفينة تيتانيك في أبريل عام 1912م في المحيط الأطلسي حيث غرق نحو 1,500 شخص.

 

وفكرة جلب وقطر جبل جليدي إلى جدة من قارة الأنتاركتيكا (12 ألف كم) كانت عام 1972م أي قبل نحو 46 سنة، وكانت فكرة مجنونة، ولم تنفذ لأسباب تقنية وطبيعية، وفي عام 1978 نُوقشت الفكرة لصالح ولاية كاليفورنيا ولم تنفذ. وفي التسعينات الفكرة نفذت جزئياً في جنوب تشيلي، وتوقفت بسبب التكاليف العالية وذوبان 80% من الجبل قبل وصوله، على الرغم أنها الدولة الأقرب للقارة المتجمدة الجنوبية (1000كم).

 

 

ووفقاً لمتابعة الجبال الجليدية المنفصلة عن جزيرة جرينلاند والسابحة في شمال غرب المحيط الأطلسي، فإنها تذوب بعد نحو 700كم، على الرغم من برودة البحر والجو هناك. وفي أطراف القارة المتجمدة الجنوبية تذوب بسبب التغير المناخي خاصة في فصل الصيف، فما بالك في أجواء المناطق المدارية الحارة!. ومن المتوقع أن الجبل المقطور سيتجزأ إلى عدة أجزاء قبل وصوله إلى الهدف المنشود.

 

 

 

 

والإمارات تنوي نقل كتل جليدية ضخمة من القطب الجنوبي إلى ساحل إمارة الفجيرة، وعلى افتراض تم سحبها سيمر الجبل الجليدي على أشد المناطق حراً في العالم جواً وبحراً (5000كم!!) مما يُسرع ذوبان الجبل المقطور، ومتوقع ووفقاً لبعض صور المحاكاة أن لا يقل الوقت المستغرق من قارة الأنتاركتيكا إلى الفجيرة عن 13 شهراً!! وقد أثبتت المحاكاة أن نقل جبل جليدي من نيوفاوندلاند إلى جزر الكنارى ولمسافة 3850كم سيستغرق نحو 5 أشهر.

 

 

 

 

ثم كيف يمكن السيطرة على الجبل الجليدي في مواجهة أعاصير مدارية؟ وأمواج عاتية؟ وتيارات بحرية نشطة؟ بل ومعاكسة لمسار السفينة القاطرة!؟ وكيف سيتعامل الناقل مع مشكلة الرياح الموسمية النشطة المعاكسة في فصل الشتاء، ومع رياح الغربيات في نصف الكرة الجنوبي، ومع الرياح التجارية جنوب خط الإستواء، وكلها ليست مع اتجاه حركة نقل الجبل الجليدي.

 

ولو كانت الفكرة منطقية لسبقتنا إليها أستراليا، ففيها صحاري تماثل صحاري الخليج، وهي أقرب إلى الجبال الجليدية من جزيرة العرب بنحو 8200كم!! وعليه فإن تكلفة تحلية مياه البحر في دول الخليج العربي أرخص، وأسهل من جلب جبل جليدي على بعد يناهز 10000 كم!!

الأفكار في الرؤوس سهلة، والمحاكاة Simulation في الحواسيب أسهل، ولكن الطبيعة عادة أقوى .. ولها الكلمة الأولى كما الأخيرة، هذا ولقد ذكر الخبر أن جلب جبل جليدي وقطره باتجاه سواحل الفجيرة أنه سيخفف من ملوحة بحر عمان وسواحل الفجيرة!! وهذا كمن يضع ملعقة ملح في النهر ليغير طعمه، وأنه سيخفف من درجة حرارة المنطقة!! وهذا كمن يفتح مكيفاً صحراوياً في أزقة دبي ليبرد المدينة برمتها!! وأنه سيساهم في زيادة الأمطار في المنطقة!! وهذا كمن يغلي الماء في أبريق الشاي ليتعاظم البخار في أجواء الرياض!!.

 

ومع ذلك أتمنى أن تكون حساباتي وآرائي خاطئة، حتى ننعم بالجبال الجليدية على سواحل جزيرة العرب في المستقبل، وأخيراً إذا عندك دراهم فهذه الطريقة العلمية العملية الأنجع والأسلم هنا  ... والله تعالى أعلم.


*******

 *الأستاذ بقسم الجغرافيا بجامعة القصيم، والمشرف على جوال كون
1438-08-14هـ
2017-05-10م

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